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MLA Citation Style 7th Edition: C. Indirect Sources

Indirect Sources (226)


Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report.

In this case, because you did not read the original work, you will include only the source you did consult in the Works Cited list.

The abbreviation “qtd.” in the parenthetical reference indicates you have not read the original research.

General Format

      Parenthetical Citation: 
      (Author Surname qtd. in Author Surname [of the source you did read] page number)

      Works Cited:
      Author Surname, First Name [of the source you did read]. Title: Subtitle. Place of
            Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.
Fong’s 1987 study found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested (qtd. in Bertram 124).
[Do not include Fong (1987) in Works Cited; do include Bertram.]